American History: Notes
Chapter 20
Chapter 20: Growth of American Cities 
I. Immigration 
A. Up to 1 million a year come to U.S. seeking work/land. 
B. Most(80%) come from southern Europe taking the 12 day voyage 
1. Europeans go through Ellis Island, NY; Asians processed at Angel Island, CA. 
2. Many try to assimilate(become part of U.S. culture). 
a. Immigration law of 1917 required immigrants to read/write 
b. Nativist: People who favor those born in the country 
- Nativist seek to limit immigration 
II. Urban Life 
A. Almost 1/2 of American live in cities by 1910. 
1. Tenements: Buildings with multiple rented rooms 
a. Slums emerge: Poor sections of cities 
b. Hull House: Settlement house started by Jane Addams to help the poor. 
c. Gilded Age: Term used to describe irony of wealthy and poor living in same cities. 
d. Skyscrapers build cities "up" due to limited space. 
e. City Parks provide "natural look". 
- Central Park, NY, designed by F. L. Olmsted 
III. Cultural Change 
A. Education: Most states require attendance and provide public schools. 
1. J. Dewey promotes learning of interests & concerns 
2. Morrill Act: Provides funds for "land-grant" colleges 
3. Women and minorities make some gains 
B. Literature, Arts Grow 
1. Magazine/newspaper sales increase 
a. W. Hearst, J. Pulitzer papers use "yellow journalism" 
b. Some early magazines still published.Atlantic Monthly 
2. Leisure time increases 
a. Painting, book reading gain popularity 
b. Music like Jazz, ragtime, orchestra gain 
c. Vaudeville and movies(T. Edison) expand