MSU Psychology: Notes
Chapter 11
Chapter 11 
I. Gender 
- Psychological social definitions of male/female based expected behaviors 
A. Development 
1. 12th week of pregnancy, androgen presence designates physical gender. 
chromosome: XX= female; XY =male 
2. Defects may occur. 
a. Sex assignment "errors" in androgens, intersex, hermaphrodite 
3. Gender role: Cultural expectations of behavior 
a. Transgender: identity is opposite of physical gender 
B. Theories 
1. Psychoanalytic: Gender roles develop through unconscious process 
2. Learning: Gender is a learned behavior 
3. Kohlberg's Stages of development: 
a. Stability: Awareness of gender permanance
b. Constancy: Gender remains despite external changes 
4. Multi-dimensional approach. 
- Inventory that describes the "degree" of gender 
5. Gender Schema: Children are motivated to behave in gender "standards" 
6. Evolutionary: "Natural" preferences determine behaviors 
a. Males seek status/power to attract females 
b. Females accent "attractive" features/behaviors to attract males 
c. Recent socioeconomic evidence suggests contrary 
II. Gender Differences 
A. Tasks 
a. Females: Verbal, perceptual, fluency, precision tasks, calculation 
b. Males: Spatial, disembedding, math reasoning, target tasks